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© 2012 Daniel Lawson.
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What is at this website?


  1. FineSTRUCTURE, the ChromoPainter and FineSTRUCTURE pipeline which includes many helper scripts for running on HPC machines, and tools for greedy optimization.
  2. Some Useful conversion/processing scripts.
  3. Some R scripts for plotting and working with FineSTRUCTURE I/O.


  1. Main methods paper:
    1. Lawson, Hellenthal, Myers, and Falush (2012), "Inference of population structure using dense haplotype data", PLoS Genetics, 8 (e1002453). (preprint)
    2. Supporting Information in a single PDF file rather than many individual files), and some additional Supplementary material (the Whole World HGDP heatmap).
    3. See ChromoPainter and FineStructure (as well as the rest of the site) for more details.
  2. Comparison paper to other linked methods:
    1. Lawson and Falush (2012), Similarity matrices and clustering algorithms for population identifcation using genetic data, Annual Review of Human Genomics, 13: 337-361. (preprint).
    2. Supplementary Material
    3. See Methods Comparison for more details.
  3. Interpreting ADMIXTURE and STRUCTURE
    1. Falush, van-Dorp and Lawson (2016), "A tutorial on how (not) to over-interpret STRUCTURE/ADMIXTURE bar plots". (Preprint to appear)
    2. See Interpreting ADMIXTURE for more details.
  4. RADPainter and fineRADstructure
    1. Malinsky, Trucchi, Lawson and Falush (2016), "RADpainter and fineRADstructure: population inference from RADseq data". (preprint).
    2. See fineRADpainter for more details.
  5. What is a population?
    1. Lawson (2012), "What is a population? In statistical genetics modelling and inference", submitted book chapter for the interdisciplinary book "What is a Population", OUP. (preprint).
    2. See What Is A Population? for more details.
    1. Hellenthal, G.; Busby, G.B.J.; Band, G.; Wilson, J.F; Capelli, C.; Falush, D.; and Myers, S. (2014) A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History. Science 343:747-751.
    2. See the interactive Interactive Admixture map or the GLOBETROTTER page for more details.


  1. Suitable Data sources for ChromoPainter.
  2. Phasing advice for ChromoPainter.
  3. A Complex example using our methods on large scale data.